Hồ Chí Minh, Long An, Việt Nam

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Born:May 19, 1890Vietnam giới...(Show more)Died:September 2, 1969HanoiVietnam giới...(Show more)Founder:Viet Minh...(Show more)Political Affiliation:French Communist PartyIndochinese Communist PartyVietnamese Workers’ Party...(Show more)Role In:First Indochina WarGeneva AccordsVietphái mạnh War...(Show more)

Ho Chi Minch led a long and ultimately successful chiến dịch to make Vietphái nam independent. He was president of North Vietnam giới from 1945 to 1969, và he was one of the most influential communist leaders of the 20th century. His seminal role is reflected in the fact that Vietnam’s largest đô thị is named for hlặng.

Ho Chi Minc grew up in a small village in what was then French Indochina. As a teen, he attended a good school in Hue. As a young man, he traveled the world as a seaman, took various jobs in London, and moved to lớn France, where he advocated for Vietnamese nationalism và became a communist.

Early life

The son of a poor country scholar, Nguyen Sinc Huy, Ho Chi Minc was brought up in the village of Kim Lien. He had a wretched childhood, but between the ages of 14 và 18 he was able lớn study at a grammar school in Hue. He is next known khổng lồ have sầu been a schoolmaster in Phan Thiet và then was apprenticed at a technical institute in Saigon.

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In 1911, under the name of Ba, he found work as a cook on a French steamer. He was a seaman for more than three years, visiting various African ports and the American cities of Boston and Thủ đô New York. After living in London from 1915 to 1917, he moved lớn France, where he worked, in turn, as a gardener, sweeper, waiter, phokhổng lồ retoucher, và oven stoker.

During the six years that he spent in France (1917–23), he became an active sociacác mục under the name Nguyen Ai Quoc (“Nguyen the Patriot”). He organized a group of Vietnamese living there & in 1919 addressed an eight-point petition lớn the representatives of the great powers at the Versailles Peace Conference that concluded World War I. In the petition, Ho demanded that the French colonial power grant its subjects in Indochina equal rights with the rulers. This act brought no response from the peacemakers, but it made him a anh hùng lớn many politically conscious Vietnamese. The following year, inspired by the success of the communist revolution in Russia & Vladimir Lenin’s anti-imperiamenu doctrine, Ho joined the French Communists when they withdrew from the Socialist Party in December 19đôi mươi.

After his years of militant activity in France, where he became acquainted with most of the French working-class leaders, Ho went to Moscow at the end of 1923. In January 1924, following the death of Lenin, he published a moving farewell to the founder of the Soviet Union in Pravda. Six months later, from June 17 lớn July 8, he took an active part in the Fifth Congress of the Communist International, during which he criticized the French Communist Party for not opposing colonialism more vigorously. His statement to lớn the congress is noteworthy because it contains the first formulation of his belief in the importance of the revolutionary role of oppressed peasants (as opposed to lớn industrial workers).

In December 1924, under the assumed name of Ly Thuy, Ho went to lớn Canton (Guangzhou), a communist stronghold, where he recruited the first cadres of the Vietnamese nationacác mục movement, organizing them into the Vietphái mạnh Tkhô hanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (“Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association”), which became famous under the name Tkhô hanh Nien. Almost all of its members had been exiled from Indochina because of their political beliefs và had gathered together in order khổng lồ participate in the struggle against French rule over their country. Thus, Canton became the first home of Indochinese nationalism.

When Chiang Kai-shek, then commander of the Chinese army, expelled the Chinese communists from Canton in April 1927, Ho again sought refuge in the Soviet Union. In 1928 he went lớn Brussels and Paris and then khổng lồ Siam (now Thailand), where he spent two years as a representative sầu of the Communist International, the world organization of communist parties, in Southeast Asia. His followers, however, remained in South Trung Quốc.

Founding of the Indochinese Communist Party

Meeting in Hong Kong in May 1929, members of the Tkhô nóng Nien decided to lớn size the Indochinese Communist Party (PCI). Others—in the Vietnamese cities of Hanoi, Hue, and Saigon—began the actual work of organization, but some of Ho’s lieutenants were reluctant to lớn act in the absence of their leader, who had the confidence of Moscow. Ho was brought bachồng from Siam, therefore, and on February 3, 1930, he presided over the founding of the các buổi party. At first it was called the Vietnamese Communist Party, but, after October 1930, Ho, acting on Soviet advice, adopted the name Indochinese Communist Party. In this phase of his career, Ho acted more as an arbiter of conflicts among muốn the various factions, allowing the organization of revolutionary action, rather than as an initiator. His prudence, his awareness of what it was possible lớn accomplish, his care not khổng lồ alienate Moscow, và the influence that he already had achieved among the Vietnamese Communists can be seen in these actions.

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In 1935 the Seventh Congress of the International, meeting in Moscow, which he attended as chief delegate for the PCI, officially sanctioned the idea of the Popular Front (an alliance with the noncommunist left against fascism)—a policy Ho had advocated for some time. In keeping with this policy, the Communists in Indochina moderated their anti-coloniadanh mục stance in 1936, allowing for cooperation with “antifascist colonialists.” The formation of Premier Léon Blum’s Popular Front government in France in the same year allowed leftist forces in Indochimãng cầu khổng lồ operate more freely, although Ho, because of his condemnation in 1930, was not permitted khổng lồ return from exile. Repression returned khổng lồ Indochimãng cầu with the fall of the Blum government in 1937, & by 1938 the Popular Front was dead.